I. Sidorenko MD, Ph.D., professor, MMA. Sechenov Moscow Allergic rhinitis (AR) – a disease that is characterized by IgE-mediated inflammation, and developing as a result of contact with allergens in the nasal mucosa, and is manifested by itching, sneezing, nasal congestion and secretions from it. AR belongs to a widespread disease. For example, in European countries in the adult population figures prevalence of AR ranged from 5.9% in France to 29% in the UK. Epidemiological studies conducted in Russia, also showed a high prevalence of AR.
Depending on region, age and sex of patients, range of fluctuations in rates ranged from 5 to 24%. Patients with RA often detected concomitant allergic diseases and complications, allergic conjunctivitis, bacterial sinusitis, polyps, sinusitis, acute and chronic otitis media, Eustachian, hearing loss. AR is a risk factor for asthma. However, the importance of timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease is often overlooked as doctors and patients. Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis, the early phase of an allergic reaction. When you first contact with the allergen specific proteins are formed – IgE antibodies, which are fixed on the surface of mast cells in various organs. Official site: Viacom. This condition is called sensitization. In most cases, one patient there is sensitization to multiple allergens belonging to different groups.
When you contact sensitized to the allergen the body is IgE-dependent activation of mast cells and basophils and release into the extracellular space of mediators of allergy: histamine, tryptase, prostaglandin D2, leukotrienes, platelet activating factor. Histamine plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the major symptoms of allergic diseases. Its action is mediated through stimulation of histamine receptors. It is now known Four types of histamine receptors. In the development of allergic reactions mainly involving the H1-receptors, activation of which leads to a reduction in smooth muscle of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract, increased permeability vessels, increased secretions of mucus mucous glands of the nose, irritation of the nerve endings.